Donnerstag, 28. Januar 2010
im: Gonçalo M. Tavares, Biblioteca, Campo das Letras
Dienstag, 26. Januar 2010
Max Reinhardt Unruh in 1912, estreou o drama de Unruh "Offizier" no Deutsches Theatre de Berlim.
Unruh was born in Koblenz, Germany. A general's son, he was an officer in the German army until 1912, when he left to pursue his writing career.
Montag, 25. Januar 2010
Samstag, 23. Januar 2010
Freitag, 22. Januar 2010
Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour:
William Wordsworth (Cockermouth, 7 de abril de 1770 – Rydal Mount, 23 de abril de 1850) foi o maior poeta romântico inglês que, ao lado de Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ajudou a lançar o romantismo na literatura inglesa com a publicação conjunta, em 1798, das Lyrical Ballads (“Baladas Líricas”).
O segundo dos cinco filhos de John Wordsworth e Ann Cookson, William nasceu em Cockermouth, em Cumberland, no Lake District, noroeste da Inglaterra. Sua irmã, a poetisa Dorothy Wordsworth, nasceu no ano seguinte, e os dois foram batizados juntos. Os outros irmãos eram Richard, o mais velho, que se tornaria advogado; John, nascido após Dorothy, que se tornaria poeta e apreciador da natureza, tal como os irmãos, e que morreu em 1809, no naufrágio de um navio onde apenas o capitão se salvou; e Christopher, o mais novo, que se tornaria um acadêmico.
O pai de William era um representante legal de “James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale” e, devido suas conexões, vivia em uma espaçosa mansão de uma pequena cidade. William, assim como seus irmãos, tinha pouco envolvimento com seu pai, e permaneceu distante dele até sua morte, em 1783.
Algumas vezes, William passava um tempo com os parentes de sua mãe, em Penrith, Cumberland, onde era influenciado pelos pântanos e paisagens, assim como pelo tratamento rude de seus parentes, em especial os avós e tio, cujas hostilidades o amarguraram a ponto de pensar em suicídio.
Após a morte de sua mãe, em 1778, o pai o mandou para "Hawkshead Grammar School", e Dorothy foi morar com parentes em Yorkshire; ela e William não se encontraram pelos próximos nove anos. Antes de Hawkshead, William estudara em Cockermount e Penrith, onde conheceu os Hutchinsons, incluindo Mary, que se tornaria sua esposa.
Wordsworth, Dorothy e Coleridge viajaram para a Alemanha em 1798. Enquanto Coleridge era intelectualmente estimulado, em Wordsworth a viagem produzia nostalgia. Durante o inverno de 1798–1799, Wordsworth morou com Dorothy em Goslar, e começou a trabalhar numa autobiografia mais tarde intitulada The Prelude.
Em 1802, após ter visitado Annette Vallon e a filha Caroline, na França, William Lowther debita 4000 libras em nome do pai de Wordsworth, em pagamento por sua ajudaApós esse ano, Wordsworth casou com Mary Hutchinson e, no ano seguinte, Mary, tem a primeira de cinco crianças:
John Wordsworth (18 de junho de 1803 - 1875). Casada quatro vezes:
Isabella Curwen (m. 1848) teve 6 filhos: Jane, Henry, William, John, Charles e Edward.
Helen Ross (m. 1854).
Mary Ann Dolan (m. após 1858), teve uma filha, Dora (n.1858).
Dora Wordsworth (16 de agosto de 1804 – 9 de julho de 1847). Casada com Edward Quillinan
Thomas Wordsworth (15 de junho de 1806 – 1 de dezembro de 1812).
Catherine Wordsworth (6 de setembro de 1808 – 4 de junho de 1812).
William "Willy" Wordsworth (12 de maio de 1810 - 1883). Casado com Fanny Graham, teve 4 filhos: Mary Louisa, William, Reginald, Gordon.
Wordsworth em 1798, na época em que começou The Prelude.
Em 1795 William encontrara Samuel Taylor Coleridge em Somerset; os dois poetas e Dorothy, em 1797, foram para "Alfoxton House", Somerset, a algumas milhas da casa de Coleridge, em Nether Stowey. Juntos, Wordsworth e Coleridge, com algumas intermediações de Dorothy, produziram Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Earth has not anything to show more fair:
No prefácio das “Lyrical Ballads”, que é chamado o “manifesto” do romantismo inglês, Wordsworth chama seu poema de “experimental”, e declara guerra à artificialidade da poesia inglesa do século XVIII, defendendo o uso da linguagem coloquial, da valorização do cotidiano e da simplicidade.
Wordsworth teve planos, durante muitos anos, de escrever um longo poema filosófico em 3 partes, que pretendia chamar The Recluse.
Em 1807, seu Poems in Two Volumes foi publicado, incluindo "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood". Dois de seus filhos, Thomas e Catherine, morreram em 1812. Sua família, incluindo Dorothy, mudou-se para Rydal Mount, Ambleside em 1813, onde ele viveu pelo resto da vida.
Em 1814 Wordsworth publicou The Excursion como a segunda das três partes de The Recluse. Ele não completara, ainda, a primeira e a terceira partes, e nunca as completou.
STAY near me-
Oh! pleasant, pleasant were the days,
Alguns críticos modernos Predefinição:Who reconhecem um declínio no trabalho de Worsworth, começando por volta de 1810, talvez decorrente mais de uma mudança de estilo de vida e de crenças.
The world is too much with us;
late and soon,
Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;
Little we see in Nature that is ours;
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!
This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon;
The winds that will be howling at all hours,
And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers,
For this, for everything, we are out of tune;It moves us not.-
-Great God! I'd rather be
A pagan suckled in a creed outworn;
So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,
Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn;
Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea;
Wordsworth recebeu um título honorário de “Doctor of Civil Law”, em 1838, da Durham University, e a mesma honoraria da Oxford University no próximo ano. Em 1842 o governo lhe dá uma pensão anual. Com a morte, em 1843, de Robert Southey, Wordsworth torna-se “Poet Laureate”. Quando sua filha Dora more, em 1847, sua produção literária começa a declinar.
William Wordsworth morreu de um agravamento de pleurisia em 23 de abril de 1850, e foi velado na igreja St. Oswald, em Grasmere. Sua viúva Mary publicou seu longo poema autobiográfico "poem to Coleridge" como The Prelude alguns meses após sua morte.
"Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems" (1798) (“Baladas líricas”)
"We are Seven"
"Lines Written in Early Spring"
"Expostulation and Reply"
"The Tables Turned"
"Lines Composed A Few Miles above Tintern Abbey"
Preface to the Lyrical Ballads
"Strange fits of passion have I known
"She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways"
"Three years she grew"
"A Slumber Did my Spirit Seal"
"I travelled among unknown men"
"The Two April Mornings"
"The Ruined Cottage"
"The Kitten At Play"
Poems, in Two Volumes (1807). Dessa obra constam Ode: Intimations of Immortality ("Indícios de Imortalidade a Partir de Reminiscências da Primeira Infância") e Ode to Duty (Ode ao Dever). Constam ainda da obra uma série de sonetos, entre os quais o famoso The world is too much with us ("O mundo Está Demais Conosco"), um protesto contra o materialismo da industrialização.
"Resolution and Independence"
"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud". Também conhecido como "Daffodils"
"My Heart Leaps Up"
"The Solitary Reaper"
"Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802"
"The world is too much with us"
"The Excursion" (1814) (“A Excursão”) – poema didático.
"The River Duddon", 1820 (O Rio Duddan).
"Ecclesiastical Sonnets", 1822 (Sonetos Eclesiásticos) – coleção de 102 sonetos em homenagem à Igreja Anglicana, entre eles o Inside of King’s College Chapel, Cambridge (No Interior da Capela do King’s College, Cambridge), exaltando a arquitetura gótica.
"The Prelude" (1850) (“O Prelúdio”, feito entre 1799 e 1805, mas publicado postumamente
Up! up! my Friend, and quit your books;
Or surely you'll grow double:Up! up! my Friend, and clear your looks;
Why all this toil and trouble?
The sun above the mountain's head,
A freshening lustre mellow
Through all the long green fields has spread,
His first sweet evening yellow.
Books! 'tis a dull and endless strife:
Come, hear the woodland linnet,
How sweet his music! on my life,
There's more of wisdom in it.
And hark! how blithe the throstle sings!
He, too, is no mean preacher:Come forth into the light of things,
Let Nature be your teacher.
She has a world of ready wealth,
Our minds and hearts to bless-
-Spontaneous wisdom breathed by health,
Truth breathed by cheerfulness.
One impulse from a vernal wood
May teach you more of man,
Of moral evil and of good,
Than all the sages can.
Sweet is the lore which Nature brings;
Our meddling intellect
Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things:-
-We murder to dissect.
Enough of Science and of Art;
Close up those barren leaves;
Come forth, and bring with you a heart
That watches and receives.
Donnerstag, 21. Januar 2010
A seiscentos quilómetros dou um último beijo nos teus sonhos sem que o notes, sem que os possas levar. Ficarei com algo deles numa das minhas mãos ocupada em dar a mão, se partires.
Mittwoch, 20. Januar 2010
Para Julian, mi guerrero cubano que ha muerto hoy en Madrid, lejos de su Guantanamera... HASTA SIEMPRE
Yo soy un hombre sincero
De donde crece la palma
Y antes de morirme quiero cantar mis versos del alma
Com los pobres de la tierra
Quiero yo mi surte hechar
El arroyo de la sierra me complace mas que el mar
Mi verso es de un verde claro
y de un camino encendido
Mi verso es un ciervo herido
que busca en el monte amparo...
Dienstag, 19. Januar 2010
Montag, 18. Januar 2010
Thomas Carlyle (Ecclefechan, 4 de dezembro de 1795 — Londres, 5 de fevereiro de 1881) foi um escritor, historiador e ensaísta escocês.
A publicação de Sartor Redartus, romance bastante original, não despertou grande atenção, enquanto que a História da Revolução Francesa, publicada algum tempo depois, marcou o início de seu imenso prestígio como escritor. Considerada sua obra-prima, é também considerada um importante marco na historiografia romântica. Por essa época também escreveu: Chartism, de 1839 e Past and Present, de 1843.
Toda a grandeza é inconsciente ou ela é pequena e nula.
A grande lei da cultura é esta: deixar que cada um se torne tudo aquilo para que foi criado capaz de ser.
Sonntag, 17. Januar 2010
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (Buenos Aires, 24 de Agosto de 1899 — Genebra, 4 de Junho de 1986) foi um escritor, poeta, tradutor, crítico e ensaísta argentino mundialmente conhecido por seus contos e histórias curtas. Ele nasceu, depois de morrer, porque ele viu, que seu sonho era próspero. E nunca mais voltou.
Segundo um estudo de Antonio Andrade, Jorge Luis Borges tem ascendência portuguesa: o bisavô de Borges, Francisco, teria nascido em Portugal em 1770 e vivido na localidade de Torre de Moncorvo, situada no Norte de Portugal, antes de emigrar para a Argentina, onde teria casado com Cármen Lafinur.
Borges foi um ávido leitor de enciclopédias. Em uma memorável palestra sobre O Livro em 1978, Borges comenta a felicidade em ganhar a enciclopédia alemã Enzyklopadie Brockhaus, edição de 1966. Lamenta não poder ver as letras góticas nem os mapas e ilustrações, entrentanto sente uma relação amistosa com os livros. Sua preferida era a IX edição da Britânica, como disse em uma das inúmeras entrevistas que deu.
Minha boca pronunciou e pronunciará, milhares de vezes e nos dois idiomas que me são íntimos, o pai-nosso, mas só em parte o entendo. Hoje de manhã, dia primeiro de julho de 1969, quero tentar uma oração que seja pessoal, não herdada. Sei que se trata de uma tarefa que exige uma sinceridade mais que humana. É evidente, em primeiro lugar, que me está vedado pedir. Pedir que não anoiteçam meus olhos seria loucura; sei de milhares de pessoas que vêem e que não são particularmente felizes, justas ou sábias. O processo do tempo é uma trama de efeitos e causas, de sorte que pedir qualquer mercê, por ínfima que seja, é pedir que se rompa um elo dessa trama de ferro, é pedir que já se tenha rompido. Ninguém merece tal milagre. Não posso suplicar que meus erros me sejam perdoados; o perdão é um ato alheio e só eu posso salvar-me. O perdão purifica o ofendido, não o ofensor, a quem quase não afeta. A liberdade de meu arbítrio é talvez ilusória, mas posso dar ou sonhar que dou. Posso dar a coragem, que não tenho; posso dar a esperança, que não está em mim; posso ensinar a vontade de aprender o que pouco sei ou entrevejo. Quero ser lembrado menos como poeta que como amigo; que alguém repita uma cadência de Dunbar ou de Frost ou do homem que viu à meia-noite a árvore que sangra, a Cruz, e pense que pela primeira vez a ouviu de meus lábios. O restante não me importa; espero que o esquecimento não demore. Desconhecemos os desígnios do universo, mas sabemos que raciocinar com lucidez e agir com justiça é ajudar esses desígnios, que não nos serão revelados.Quero morrer completamente; quero morrer com este companheiro, meu corpo.
Freitag, 15. Januar 2010
Donnerstag, 14. Januar 2010
Uma vez Hugo von Hofmannsthal escreveu:"A Áustria se tornou primeiro "grande ou fascinante" pela sua música e desse forma conquistou o mundo".
Nesse clima cresce a arte de fazer poesia austríaca como uma criação própria,como uma criação que veio do povo como também dos seus maiores representantes,o poeta Grillparzer.
Photo: G. Ludovice
Joseph Roth (1894-1939) was already a novelist known in German-speaking world and a famous journalist Job when it launched in 1930.
Mittwoch, 13. Januar 2010
The only account of Gurdjieff's early life before he appeared in Moscow in 1912 appears in his text Meetings with Remarkable Men. This text, however, cannot be read as straightforward autobiography. It was in the pre-1912 period that Gurdjieff went on his apocryphal voyage outlined in Meetings with Remarkable Men where he comes upon a map of "pre-sand Egypt" which leads him to study with an esoteric group, the Sarmoung Brotherhood.
In the midst of revolutionary upheaval in Russia he left Petrograd in 1917 to return to his family home in Alexandropol. During the Bolshevik Revolution Gurdjieff set up temporary study-communities in Essentuki in the Caucasus, then in Tuapse, Maikop, Sochi and Poti, all on the Black Sea coast of southern Russia, where he worked intensively with many of his Russian pupils.
In 1918, Ouspensky separated from Gurdjieff and four months later Gurdjieff's eldest sister and her family reached him in Essentuki as refugees, informing him that Turks had shot his father in Alexandropol on 15 May during the Turkish genocide of the Armenians. As Essentuki became more and more threatened by civil war, Gurdjieff put out a fabricated newspaper story announcing his forthcoming "scientific expedition" to Mount Induc. Posing as a scientist, Gurdjieff left Essentuki with fourteen companions (excluding Gurdjieff's family and Ouspensky). They traveled by train to Maikop, where hostilities delayed them for three weeks. In spring 1919 Gurdjieff met the artist Alexandre Salzmann and his wife Jeanne and accepted them as pupils. Assisted by Jeanne Salzmann, Gurdjieff gave the first public demonstration of his Sacred Dances (Movements at the Tbilisi Opera House, 22 June).
Reading further, James Moore convincingly shows however that Katherine Mansfield knew she was soon to die and Gurdjieff made her last days happy and fulfilling; for this he received the calumny of the press.
Starting in 1924 Gurdjieff made visits to North America, where he eventually took over the pupils taught previously by A.R. Orage.
In 1924, while driving alone from Paris to Fontainebleau, Gurdjieff had a near-fatal car-accident. Nursed by his wife and mother, he made a slow and painful recovery — against medical expectation. Still convalescent, he formally "disbanded" his Institute on 26 August (in fact he dispersed only his less-dedicated pupils), and began writing All and Everything.
In 1925 Gurdjieff's wife contracted cancer; she died in June 1926 in spite of radiotherapy and Gurdjieff's magnetic treatments which due his near death was unable to fully implement. Ouspensky attended her funeral. According to Fritz Peters, Gurdjieff was in New York from November 1925 to the spring of 1926 and he succeeded in raising over $1,000,000.
In 1935 Gurdjieff stopped writing All and Everything, having completed the first two parts of the trilogy but having only started on the Third Series (published under the title Life Is Real Only Then, When 'I Am').
In Paris, Gurdjieff lived at 6 Rue des Colonels-Rénard, where he continued to teach throughout World War II.
Gurdjieff died on October 29, 1949 at the American Hospital in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. His funeral took place at the St. Alexandre Nevsky Russian Orthodox Cathedral at 12 Rue Daru, Paris. He is buried in the cemetery at Fontainebleau-Avon.
Gurdjieff claimed that people cannot perceive reality, as they are not conscious of themselves, but live in a state of a hypnotic "waking sleep".
"Man lives his life in sleep, and in sleep he dies."
In his early lectures Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as the Fourth Way. In contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or emotions separately, Gurdjieff's exercises claimed to work on all three at the same time to promote comprehensive and balanced inner development. In parallel with with other spiritual traditions, Gurdjieff taught that one must expend considerable effort to effect the transformation that leads to awakening. The effort that one puts into practice Gurdjieff referred to as "The Work" or "Work on oneself".
Gurdjieff's teaching addressed the question of humanity's place in the universe and the importance of developing latent potentialities — regarded as our natural endowment as human beings but rarely brought to fruition. He taught that higher levels of consciousness, higher bodies, inner growth and development are real possibilities that nonetheless require conscious work to achieve.
In his teaching Gurdjieff gave a distinct meaning to various ancient texts such as the Bible and many religious prayers. He claimed that those texts possess a very different meaning than what is commonly attributed to them. "Sleep not"; "Awake, for you know not the hour"; and "The Kingdom of Heaven is Within" are examples of biblical statements which point to a psychological teaching whose essence has been forgotten.
Gurdjieff taught people how to increase and focus their attention and energy in various ways and to minimize daydreaming and absentmindedness. According to his teaching, this inner development in oneself is the beginning of a possible further process of change, the aim of which is to transform people into what Gurdjieff believed they ought to be.[
To provide conditions in which inner attention could be exercised more intensively, Gurdjieff also taught his pupils "sacred dances" or "movements", later known as the Gurdjieff movements, which they performed together as a group. He also left a body of music, inspired by what he heard in visits to remote monasteries and other places, written for piano in collaboration with one of his pupils, Thomas de Hartmann. Gurdjieff also used various exercises, such as the "Stop" exercise, to prompt self-observation in his students. Other shocks to help awaken his pupils from constant day-dreaming were always possible at any moment.
"Gurdjieff's teachings were transmitted thruough special conditions and through special forms leading to consciousness: Group Work, physical labor, crafts, ideas exchanges, arts, music, movement, dance, adventures in nature..., enabled the unrealized individual to transcend the mechanical, acted-upon self and ascend from mere personality to self-actualizing essence."
The Gurdjieff music divides into three distinct periods. The first period is the early music, including music from the ballet Struggle of the Magicians and music for early Movements, dating to the years around 1918.
The second period music, for which Gurdjieff arguably became best known, written in collaboration with Russian composer Thomas de Hartmann, is described[by whom?] as the Gurdjieff-de Hartmann music. Dating to the mid 1920s, it offers a rich repertory with roots in Caucasian and Central Asian folk and religious music, Russian Orthodox liturgical music, and other sources. This music was often first heard, and even composed, in the salon at the Prieure. Since the publication of four volumes of this piano repertory by Schott, recently completed, there has been a wealth of new recordings, including orchestral versions of music prepared by Gurdjieff and de Hartmann for the Movements demonstrations of 1923-24.
The last musical period is the improvised harmonium music which often followed the dinners Gurdjieff held in his Paris apartment during the Occupation and immediate post-war years, to his death in 1949. A virtually encyclopedic recording of surviving tapes of Gurdjieff improvising on the harmonium was recently published.
In all, Gurdjieff in collaboration with de Hartmann composed some 200 pieces.
Movements, or sacred dances, constitute an integral part of the Gurdjieff Work. Gurdjieff sometimes referred to himself as a "teacher of dancing," and gained initial public notice for his attempts to put on a ballet in Moscow called "Struggle of the Magicians."
Films of Movements demonstrations are occasionally shown for private viewing by the Gurdjieff Foundations, and one is shown in a scene in the Peter Brook movie Meetings with Remarkable Men.
According to Gurdjieff, the work of Schools of the Fourth Way never remains the same for long. In some cases, this has led to a break between student and teacher as is the case of Ouspensky and Gurdjieff. The outward appearance of the School and the group work can change according to the circumstances. However, the inner individual expression such as the practice of self-remembering with self-observation and the non-expression of negative emotions, always remains the same and could never change for that is the guarantee of ultimate self-development.
Gurdjieff wrote and approved for publication three volumes of his written work under the title All and Everything.
The first volume, Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson, is a lengthy allegorical work that recounts the explanations of Beelzebub to his grandson concerning the beings of the planet Earth. Intended to be a teaching tool, Gurdjieff wemt to great lengths in order to increase the effort needed to read and understand the book.
As Gurdjieff explained to Ouspensky ... "for exact understanding exact language is necessary." In his first series of writings, Gurdjieff explains how difficult it is to choose an ordinary language to convey his thoughts exactly. He continues..."the Russian language is like the English...both these languages are like the dish which is called in Moscow 'Solianka', and into which everything goes except you and me..." In spite of the difficulties, he goes on to develop a special vocabulary of a new language all of it his own. He uses these new words particularly in the first series of his writings. However, in The Herald of Coming Good, he uses one particular word for the first time which does not appear in any of his other writings: ..." Tzvarnoharno...leads to the destruction of both him that tries to achieve something for general human welfare and of all that he has already accomplished to this end."
According to Gurdjieff, King Solomon himself coined this particular word; as such, it seems to be a key to understanding the legend of Hiram Abiff.
Opinions on Gurdjieff's writings and activities are divided. Sympathizers regard him as a charismatic master who brought new knowledge into Western culture, a psychology and cosmology that enable insights beyond those provided by established science.
Critics assert he was simply a charlatan with a large ego and a constant need for self-glorification.
Outwardly , at the first glance, this exercise is simple. For instance, you see, I sit here in my usual posture. I am dividing my attention. But no one can see this inner process. I divide my atten...
Outwardly , at the first glance, this exercise is simple. For instance, you see, I sit here in my usual posture. I am dividing my attention. But no one can see this inner process. I divide my attention consciously into two parts. With one part I now sense, feel and constate simultaneously with one conscious concentration. Now I breathe. I feel that something happening to the air that I breath in. Part of it goes in, part goes out, and a part remains. My organism, that is my lungs, take a part, then a part leaves and a part remains. I feel what is happening in my lungs. When I breath in, part of the air is assimilated and I feel its flow all over the body. It goes everywhere. I keep my attention fixed; I feel, I sense how this air is being assimilated in me and how It flows in my presence. It is not necessary to find out where it goes, it just flows in my presence.One part of my attention is occupied with this - breathing, assimilating and flowing of the air. Already my mental associations are very weak. I notice them sometimes, by the way, because part of my attention is free, and is able to notice mental associations.Now I will concentrate the ether half of my attention on my mind. my head brain. I feel that in my head-brain something arises from the total of the flow of associations there. I don't know what is taking place there, but there is something, and with my half attention I notice this very thin something arise, so small, so light, so thin, that nobody feel it the first few times, not until constant practice gives the feeling. I know this subjectively because I have practised it. I feel , I sense, l constate, that something arises in my head-brain. All the time, of course, the other half of my attention is occupied with the breathing process. Even while speaking, this exercise is being automatically done. Now I direct my attention to help this something in my brain to flow towards my solar plexus. What arises in the brain is not important. What is important is that the something that arises there should flow into the solar plexus. Now I feel how it flows. My attention is fully occupied and I don't see any more associations All my attention is occupied pied with feeling, sensing, and assimilating the flow of air, and also with this arising in my head-brain.This flow of assimilated air, and this something which arises in my head brain, I specially, consciously, with my wish, concentrate to let it flow into my solar plexus. Now, by the way I feel and constate that I breathe, I assimilate and that this flow goes to the solar plexus. And all the time the flow from the air I breathe and the flow from my head-associations go to the solar plexus although they issue from different sources.For me personally, at the same time, I feel very strongly that I AM. I feel that I AM ten times stronger. My "I" takes in this food more intensely, but for you, at the present moment, do not do this exercise in order to be stronger. For you this exercise is only a preparation to have an "I" and so that you should constate the two sources from which this "I" can arise. For me it gives food to my "I". It makes it stronger, so that now I am not "tail of donkey". I AM.But you can not yet use this exercise to make yourself stronger; you must first learn and constate the two sources from which this possibility can arise, to have a real " I" - from air and from mentation, even automatic mentation; and then , when you will have practised this exercise a great deal, you may be able to have possibilities for real active mentation. And then with real active mentation, the I" can become stronger.Enough. I stop and let these processes proceed in me automatically. Now, without titillation without philosophizing and manipulation, try to understand the total of all this and formulate it according to your subjective understanding, according to whatever kind of idiot you are. Then do [it].
The Italian composer and singer Franco Battiato was sometime inspired by Gurdieff's work, for example in his song Cerco un centro di gravita permanente that is one of most popular modern Italian pop songs. Aleister Crowley visited his Institute at least once. Gurdjieff called Crowley 'dirty,' and wanted him to leave the institute. Privately Crowley praised Gurdjieff's work, though with some reservations. During WWI, Algernon Blackwood took up spying while reporting to John Buchan, author of The Thirty Nine Steps. After the war, during the Roaring Twenties, Blackwood studied with Gurdjieff and Ouspensky.
However one regards Gurdjieff's teaching, or Gurdjieff personally, he appears to have given new life and practical form to ancient teachings of both East and West. For example, the Socratic/Platonic emphasis on "the examined life" recurs in Gurdjieff's teaching as the practice of self-observation. His teachings about self-discipline and restraint reflect Stoic teachings. The Hindu/Buddhist notion of attachment recurs in Gurdjieff's teaching as the concept of identification. Similarly, his cosmology can be "read" against ancient and esoteric sources, respectively Neoplatonic and such a source as Robert Fludd's treatment of macrocosmic musical structures.
American psychological culture has seized on one of Gurdjieff's inovations, the enneagram. For many students of the Gurdjieff tradition the enneagram remains a "koan," challenging and never fully explicated. Lord Pentland allowed very limited use of this symbol. There have been many attempts to trace the origins of the enneagram; some similarites to other figures have been found, but it seems that Gurdjieff was the sole revealer of this esoteric symbol to the world and only he knew the true source. Many imitators have attempted to use the enneagram symbol as the basis for personality analysis, for example in the Enneagram of Personality, developed by Oscar Ichazo,Claudio Naranjo, Helen Palmer, and others, and in that application it is not related to Gurdjieff's teaching or to his explanations of the enneagram.
The science-fiction and horror novelist John Shirley has written an introductory work on Gurdjieff for Penguin/Tarcher, Gurdjieff: An Introduction to His Life and Ideas.
Gurdjieff had influenced the formation of many groups after his death, all of which still function today and follow his ideas.
Gurdjieff student Lord Pentland connects the Gurdjieff group-work with the later rise of encounter groups. Groups also often meet to prepare for demonstrations or performances to which the public is invited.
Criticism by Louis Pauwels among others of Gurdjieff's system largely focuses on his insistence on seeing people as "asleep" in a state closely resembling "hypnotic sleep". Gurdjieff said, even specifically at times, that a pious, good, and moral man was no more "spiritually developed" than any other person; they are all equally "asleep".
This belief seems to runs counter the Judeo-Christian tradition that man is a living soul.
In his most elaborate writing, Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson (see bibliography), Gurdjieff records his reverence for the founders of the mainstream religions of East and West and his contempt (by and large) for what successive generations of believers have made of those religious teachings. His ironical discussions of "orthodoxhydooraki" and "heterodoxhydooraki" — orthodox fools and heterodox fools, from the Russian word durak (fool) — position him as a critic of religious distortion and, in turn, as a target for criticism from some within those traditions. Gurdjieff has been interpreted by some, Ouspensky among others, to have had a total disregard for the value of mainstream religion, philanthropic work and the value of doing right or wrong in general.
Frank R. Sinclair, president of the Gurdjieff Foundation in New York, identifies Michele de Salzmann as Jeanne de Salzmann's son by Gurdjieff. Dushka Howarth, the daughter of one of Gurdjieff's early Movements instructors Jessmin Howarth, and a few others are described as children of Gurdjieff.
According to Alex Owen, Gurdjieff "...was often referred to by his followers as a magician, and the powerful effect of his hypnotic presence is reminiscent of Aleister Crowley in his prime. Although Gurdjieff despised Crowley, both men were undeniably occult Masters in a similar mold."
Though Aun Weor himself only ever speaks of Gurdjieff in positive terms but not so when it comes down to discuss Kundalini or when Gurdjieff writes, "...Concerning sexual desire ...If a youth but once gratify this lust before reaching adulthood, then the same would happen to him as happened to the historical Essau...But when the youth is grown up, then he can do whatever he likes..."
Gurdjieff vs Rasputin
"...Rom Landau was one of the first to compare Gurdjieff to Rasputin. Describing a meeting with Gurdjieff, he explains: 'I had been specially careful not to look at Gurdjieff and not to allow him to look into my eyes...'"
With so much to be discussed, about Gurdjieff and his teaching, other views abound which were either generated by Gurdjieff himself or his followers. For example, during the Russian period Gurdjieff spoke with respect of the obyvatel, the simple householder or salt-of-the-earth peasant, who lives by traditional values and slowly develops himself. Much later, in Paris, he gave encouragement and financial help to a multitude of people who were hard up for one reason or another. His Paris flat had, people say, one of the world's worst art collections, consisting of pieces purchased from indigent artists as a cover for providing them with funds without humiliating them. Diogenes, the ancient Greek Cynic philosopher whom Gurdjieff resembles, once said of himself that like the chorus master, he set the note a little high so that the chorus would hit the right note. For his pupils and in his writings, Gurdjieff set the note "a little high" as a goal and inspiration, while in his personal conduct he was generous to "the average man." Many such people attended his funeral at the Russian cathedral, rue Daru. Gurdjieff's pupils did not know them.
The Herald of Coming Good by G. I. Gurdjieff (1933, 1971, 1988)
All and Everything trilogy:
Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson by G. I. Gurdjieff (1950)
Meetings with Remarkable Men by G. I. Gurdjieff (1963)
Life is Real Only Then, When 'I Am' by G. I. Gurdjieff (1974)
Views from the Real World gathered talks of G. I. Gurdjieff by his pupil Olga de Hartmann(1973)
Books about Gurdjieff and The Fourth Way
The Unknowable Gurdjieff, Margaret Anderson, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1962, ISBN 0-7100-7656-8
Gurdjieff: A Very Great Enigma by J. G. Bennett, 1969
Gurdjieff: Making a New World by J. G. Bennett 1973, ISBN 0-06-090474-7
Idiots in Paris by J. G. Bennett and E. Bennett, 1980
Becoming Conscious with G.I. Gurdjieff, Solanges Claustres, Eureka Editions, 2005
Mount Analogue by René Daumal 1st edition in French, 1952; English, 1974
The Fellowship: The Untold Story of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Taliesin Fellowship by Roger Friedland and Harold Zellman, 2006, (includes especially extensive documentation on "the strong influence the occultist Georgi Gurdjieff had on Wright and especially his wife Oglivanna.")
Gurdjieff Unveiled by Seymour Ginsburg, 2005
Our Life with Mr. Gurdjieff by Thomas and Olga de Hartmann, 1964, Revised 1983 and 1992
IT'S UP TO OURSELVES, A Mother, A Daughter and Gurdjieff, a Shared Memoir and Family Photoalbum by Jessmin and Dushka Howarth, Gurdjieff Heritage Society, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9791926-0-9
Undiscovered Country by Kathryn Hulme, 1966
The Oragean Version by C. Daly King, 1951
The Gurdjieff Years 1929-1949: Recollections of Louise March by Annabeth McCorkle
Psychological Commentaries on the Teachings of Gurdjieff and Ouspensky by Maurice Nicoll, 1952, 1955, 1972, 1980, (6 volumes)
Teachings of Gurdjieff - The Journey of a Pupil by C. S. Nott, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1961
On Love by A. R. Orage, 1974
Psychological Exercises by A. R. Orage 1976
In Search of the Miraculous by P. D. Ouspensky, 1949 (numerous editions)
The Fourth Way by P. D. Ouspensky, 1957
The Psychology of Man's Possible Evolution by P. D. Ouspensky, 1978
Eating The "I": An Account of The Fourth Way: The Way of Transformation in Ordinary Life, William Patrick Patterson, 1992
Ladies of the Rope: Gurdjieff's Special Left Bank Women's Group, William Patrick Patterson 1999
Struggle of the Magicians: Exploring the Teacher-Student Relationship, William Patrick Patterson 1996
Taking with the Left Hand: Enneagram Craze, The Fellowship of Friends, and the Mouravieff Phenomenon, William Patrick Patterson, 1998
Voices in the Dark: Esoteric, Occult & Secular Voices in Nazi-Occupied Paris 1940-44, William Patrick Patterson, 2001
Spiritual Survival in a Radically Changing World-Time, William Patrick Patterson, 2009
Boyhood with Gurdjieff by Fritz Peters, 1964
Gurdjieff Remembered by Fritz Peters, 1965
The Gurdjieff Work by Kathleen Speeth ISBN 0-87477-492-6
Gurdjieff: An Introduction To His Life and Ideas by John Shirley, 2004, ISBN 1-58542-287-8
Gurdjieff: A Master in Life, Tcheslaw Tchekhovitch, Dolmen Meadow Editions, Toronto, 2006
Toward Awakening by Jean Vaysse, 1980
Gurdjieff: An Approach to his Ideas, Michel Waldberg, 1981, ISBN 0-7100-0811-2
A Study of Gurdjieff's Teaching, Kenneth Walker, 1957
Gurdjieff: The Key Concepts, Sophia Wellbeloved, Routledge, London and N.Y., 2003, ISBN 0-415-24898-1
Gurdjieff, Astrology and Beelzebub's Tales, Sophia Wellbeloved, Solar Bound Press, N.Y., 2002
The War Against Sleep: The Philosophy of Gurdjieff, Colin Wilson, 1980
Who Are You Monsieur Gurdjieff?, René Zuber 1980
Monsieur Gurdjieff, Louis Pauwels, France, 1954. 
"Ouspensky, Gurdjieff et les Fragments d'un Enseignement inconnu", by Boris Mouravieff, in Revue Mensuelle Internationale "Synthèses", N°138, Bruxelles, novembre 1957.
"Ecrits sur Ouspensky, Gurdjieff et sur la Tradition ésotérique chrétienne", Inédit, Dervy Poche, Paris, September 2008.
Gurdjieff Seeker of the Truth, Kathleen Speeth, Ira Friedlander, 1980, ISBN 0-06-090693-6
Gurdjieff: Making a New World posthumous work by John G. Bennett, 1973, Harper, ISBN 0-06-060778-5
The Harmonious Circle: The Lives and Work of G. I. Gurdjieff, P. D. Ouspensky, and Their Followers by James Webb, 1980, Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0-399-11465-3
Gurdjieff: The anatomy of a Myth by James Moore, 1991, ISBN 1-86204-606-9
Gurdjieff's America: Mediating the Miraculous by Paul Beekman Taylor, 2004, Lighthouse Editions, ISBN 1904998003. Reissued as Gurdjieff's Invention of America 2007, Eureka Editions.
G. I. Gurdjieff: A New Life by Paul Beekman Taylor, 2008, Eureka Editions, ISBN 978-90-72395-57-3
Videos and DVDs about Gurdjieff and the Fourth Way
Gurdjieff's Legacy: Establishing The Teaching in the West, 1924-1949 Part III
Gurdjieff's Mission: Introducing The Teaching to the West, 1912-1924 Part II
Gurdjieff in Egypt: The Origin of Esoteric Knowledge Part I
Meetings with Remarkable Men, Peter Brook, 1979
Tribute to G. I. Gurdjieff
Some moments with Mr. Gurdjieff and others, France 1949
Hitler, Stalin and Gurdjiev. Running time appr. 44 minutes. Russia, 2006.
G.I. Gurdjieff Sacred Hymns, by Keith Jarrett, ECM, 1980
Seekers of the Truth: The Complete Piano Music of Georges I. Gurdjieff and Thomas de Hartmann, Volume One, by Cecil Lytle, Celestial Harmonies, 1992
Reading of a Sacred Book: The Complete Piano Music of Georges I. Gurdjieff and Thomas de Hartmann, Volume Two, by Cecil Lytle, Celestial Harmonies, 1992
Words for a Hymn to the Sun: The Complete Piano Music of Georges I. Gurdjieff and Thomas de Hartmann, Volume Three, by Cecil Lytle, Celestial Harmonies, 1992
Gurdjieff's Music for the Movements, by Wim van Dullemen, Channel Classics, 1999
Thomas de Hartmann: Music for Gurdjieff's '39 Series' , by Wim van Dullemen, Channel Classics, 2001
Chants, Hymns and Dances, by Anja Lechner and Vassilis Tsabropoulos, ECM, 2004
Melos, by Anja Lechner, Vassilis Tsabropoulos and U.T. Gandhi, ECM, 2008